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X-rays are used to value the different density of the constituent materials . Short wave allows to reach the inside matter. With this method we see the effect of greater or lesser absorption of electromagnetic waves by substance.
To take x-ray pictures, we need a special emulsified film on both faces. The film is normally placed in contact with a lead plate. This procedure also reveals the areas where there are alterations.
Reintegration or paint additions will display on the x ray picture as different density depending on the used materials. Radiography is often mentioned as the most appropriate method of scientific examination to the study of the structural works of art. But x-rays must be complemented by other analytical methods in order to reach a more complete understanding of the work.
Thanks to radiography, we can witness the damages of woodworms in type and sizes.
The use of x-rays not only allows to know the state of preservation of the material, but also shows the presence of reinstatements and alterations.
Clear evidence is offered by the enlarged photograph of the Mona Lisa’s lips. The lips with the famous smile do not exist, they are only nuances of color. (X-rays pictures belong to Louvre Museum)